James Boswell (1740-1795)

James Boswell sprang from an ancient Ayrshire family, which had been settled at Auchinleck since the sixteenth century. He was born in Edinburgh in 1740 where his father, who became Lord Auchinleck, was a Judge in the Supreme Court of Scotland. His mother was descended from a minor branch of Scottish royalty.

He was educated at Edinburgh University followed by Glasgow University, where he attended the lectures of the great Enlightenment philosopher, Adam Smith. From the start, Bozzy as he was affectionately known, was drawn to the pleasure loving side of life. His first visit to London at the age of 19 began a love affair with the city which never wavered.

His charm, sensitivity and intelligence opened doors to the most brilliant men of the day, but the ultimate prize for Boswell was his friendship with the towering figure of Dr Samuel Johnson – compiler of the definitive dictionary of the English language and celebrated man of letters. Boswell’s friendship led him to become Johnson’s biographer and the account of his life, published in 1791, has never been out of print.

His Life of Johnson established him as the inventor of modern biography and has upheld his reputation as one of the most innovative writers of the enlightenment. Boswell was also author of a pioneering travel book An Account of Corsica (1768) and his famous Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides (1785), which described an expedition made to the Western Isles with Dr Johnson. At the end of their journey, they stayed at Auchinleck where Johnson famously crossed swords with Boswell’s father.

Gilray Cartoon - Boswell Johnson
Samuel Johnson and James Boswell, Walking up Edinburgh High Street in 1773 from a caricature by Thomas Rowlandson
Corsican Boswell
James Boswell in the dress of an armed Corsican Chief as he appeared at Shakespeare’s Jubilee at Stratford upon Avon, September 1769

Boswell’s fame redoubled in the twentieth century with the discovery and publication of his diaries, setting him alongside Pepys as one of the greatest diarists in the English language. Boswell ushered in the confessional memoir, which is so popular today.

Nothing was omitted – including his innumerable sexual encounters, his battle with depression, his difficult relationship with his father, his frustrated political ambition and his life as a lawyer in the Scottish courts. Boswell was an Ayrshireman through and through.

He married his cousin, Margaret Montgomerie, who was also born in Ayrshire, with whom he had five children and became Laird of Auchinleck on the death of his father in 1782 and devoted much time and money to the care of the Estate.

He died in 1795 and was interred in the Boswell Mausoleum in Auchinleck churchyard.

Book cover: Life of Johnson
Published in 1791, it has never been out of print and is widely regarded as the first modern biography
Book cover: London Journal
First published in 1950 in the USA and UK, it sold half a million copies in its first four years. This edition published in 2010 and edited by Gordon Turnbull
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